Jul 2019 11

Anti-polishing rings is know by different names lik:

1. carbon scraper ring

2. piston cleaning ring

3. bore polishing ring

It is a newer development in Cummins ISX engines where a cylinder liner will have an anti-bore at its top that holds a ring insert.

Explained in Following Picture:

Anti-Polishing Rings Functions:


Like most engine design changes, the development of an anti-polishing ring was created with a particular purpose in mind. In this case, that purpose is removing carbon buildup from the piston. Looking at the diagram above, you will notice that the ring insert protrudes slightly from the interior cylinder wall. Because of its protrusion, it comes into close contact with the topland of the piston. This close contact doesn’t allow for even the slightest bit of space between the piston and the ring, meaning the ring will scrape away any carbon that would otherwise accumulate on the piston (which is why some people call it a carbon scraper ring).

Benefits of Anti-Polishing Rings”


By preventing carbon buildup, the ring also prevents liner polishing (which is why it’s also called an anti-polishing ring. Cylinder walls are made to have peaks and valleys, and there is a particular bore surface finish that allows the engine to run its best. Engine Build Magazine has a detailed explanation or various cylinder bore surface finishes if you’re curious to know more about that. When there is too much carbon built up on a piston, the carbon slowly files down the peaks of the liner wall. When these peaks are worn down enough to almost eliminate the troughs of the liner will, it is known as bore polishing. Bore polishing can lead to many serious issues.


The most common issue that bore polishing leads to is an increase in oil consumption. It is natural for an engine to consume some oil. But if you notice that your engine seems to consume oil excessively, try using Cummin’s oil consumption evaluator tool.


In addition to oil consumption, bore polishing can also cause DPF regeneration, increased oil filter flow, plugged oil filters, and sticky VGT actuators. None of these are good for your engine and can cause you a lot of money if not taken care of. The benefits of getting anti-polishing ring cylinder liners are that they are proven to dramatically reduce the chances of these problems occurring.

Anti-Polishing Rings Compatibility:

If your ISX engine has heavy bore polish due to carbon packing, Cummins recommends you replace your current liners with APR liners ASAP. However, if you choose to upgrade your liners, you need to make sure everything is compatible first. Below are some compatibility points to be aware of when getting APR liners:


APR liners must be used with certain pistons.


They cannot be used with open skirt pistons.

They cannot be used with high top ring pistons.

They must be used with closed window, reduced diameter, low top ring pistons.


All six cylinder liners must be the same.

Liner shims must be replaced with new shims upon installation.

Perhaps the easiest way to make sure everything is compatible when you upgrade is to buy a complete engine rebuilt kit. Our techs will make sure you get everything that you need to switch your engine to APR. Check out our APR offerings here.

Anti-Polishing Rings (APR) Piston Installation

Piston installation can get a little tricky when you have an APR cylinder liner. So, let’s go in order.

First, the good news is that you can usually remove the anti-polishing ring by hand. If you have a difficult time removing the ring by hand, there is a snap rings tool that will help. The rest of the disassembly process should be the same as with any other liner.

The process gets tricky when you go to install the piston assembly. Because of the nature of the anti-polishing ring, you won’t be able to install the piston from the top of the liner. Therefore, you can only install the piston assembly from the bottom, unless you install the anti-polishing ring after you install the piston. You will also need a piston ring compressor adaptor tool to do the installation.

Jun 2018 05

Find Out How Diesel Engine Turbocharger Works?Comments Off on Find Out How Diesel Engine Turbocharger Works?

Posted In Blog

Curious That How Turbocharger Works? Heavy Duty Kits video series is here to explain the functionality of Diesel Engine parts. Question, Like, Share and Comment.

Jun 2018 01

Why Are Cylinder Head Dowels Important?Comments Off on Why Are Cylinder Head Dowels Important?

Posted In Blog

Why Are Cylinder Head Dowels Important?

Jun 2017 14

Main Points to Consider While Repairing Navistar DT466 Engine Cylinder BlockComments Off on Main Points to Consider While Repairing Navistar DT466 Engine Cylinder Block

Posted In Blog

Navistar DT466 Engine Specifications & Application

Navistar DT engine Series consists of 6 mid-range Diesel Engines. So, the horsepower ranges from 130Kw/170hp to 260KW/350hp. DT series engines are part of medium range heavy duty automotive like trucks, school buses, and other buses applications. Whereas other engines serve in the service applications.

Navistar International previously known as International Harvest company was producing diesel engines mainly for Agricultural and construction equipment.

The dt466 engine being considered legend among DT engine Series because of its endurance and performance. There is a famous saying regarding DT466 that:

“If DT466 isn’t Enduring than we don’t what is”.

With a displacement of 466 cubic inches, DT466 is Six-Cylinder, four cycle Diesel Engine. Bore size and stroke of DT466 are 11.6.5mm*118.9mm (4.59*4.68 inches). With the compression ratio of 16.5:1. At 1900 rpm it produces maximum 260HP output while at 1400 rpm the maximum torque output is 800 ft-lbs.

DT466 engine aspiration system turbocharged with wastegate technology. Also with air to air intercooled design. This is Because of its fuel injection combustion technology. DT466 Engine governed speed 2500rpm estimated.

Navistar Introduced Wet Sleeve design into diesel Engines. In this model, they created cylinder walls/sleeves as the separately machined part which helps and fits exactly into the upper counter bore it helps in sealing at the top with O-ring housing bores are cast into the engine block in the bottom.

Major Update In International DT Engine Series

In 2004 major update was made into DT engine series to meet the emission standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency of USA. For this purpose, a new EVRT turbocharger technology did introduce with movable turbo vanes which helped in improved boosting and reduced the lag. Improved electronically controlled hydraulic unit fuel injection system along with a new four-valve cylinder head and an exhaust Gas Recirculation to reduce emissions.

Despite its endurance from a mechanic point of view Wet Sleeve engines do require in chassis overhauls after the specific period.

Jun 2017 06

Importance of Quality Piston Skirt In Diesel Engine Overhaul ProcessComments Off on Importance of Quality Piston Skirt In Diesel Engine Overhaul Process

Posted In Diesel Engine,Engine Rebuild Kit

Role of Piston Skirts In Diesel Engine

Piston skirts is an important part of piston which covers the lowest. Piston skirt is responsible to keep piston from shaking unreasonably within the cylinder during working. Providing proper lubrication is the main task of Piston Skirts by holding and transporting oil to wall of the cylinder. To prevent scuffs on cylinder wall chemical layer coating is made on Piston Skirts which helps in proper lubrication.

Especially Heavy Diesel Engines requires proper lubrication in the cylinder walls and it requires special Piston Skirts which can perform lubrication process in heavy diesel engine.

Therefore, PIA has introduced High Performance diesel engine overhaul Piston Skits.

PIA’s Piston Skirts

PAI’s Piston Skirts are treated with a new and highly developed anti-friction coating process. The coating is designed to lower scuffing and wear while providing a dry lubrication that is highly resistant to contamination, and reduces parasitic drag.  HP-3 is a proprietary formulation of anti- friction coating applied to the piston skirt, to decrease friction on the cylinder walls.


As the largest friction area, the Cylinder Wall represents the largest loss of power and efficiency anywhere in the engine. HP-3 coating drastically reduces friction and allow for tighter clearances between the piston and the Cylinder Wall. This reduction in friction and clearance improves overall performance, lowers oil usage and oil temperature; ultimately increasing the life of the Skirt.

“HP-3 Coating drastically reduces friction and allow for tighter clearances between the piston and the Cylinder Wall.”

Check Out: PIA’s High Performance Diesel Engine Rebuild Kits of Cummins, International, CAT, Mack and Detroit Offered By H.D. Kits.

Hp-3 Dry Film Lubricant

Coating Process

HP-3 Dry Film Lubricant coating is applied as a spray process. Different surface preparatory methods appropriate for the substrates are used prior to the coating process. Coating thickness is varied to suit the application. Typical coating thickness for piston skirts is 1 to 1.5 mil (12 to 37 microns).



Low coefficient of friction, provides intermittent dry lubrication, Increased load carrying capacity, wear resistance, corrosion protection.

Caterpillar C15 Diesel Engine
Oct 2016 10

Caterpillar C15 Diesel EngineComments Off on Caterpillar C15 Diesel Engine

Posted In Diesel Engine

Lean, Mean, And Clean

Diesel has always been the bad boy among all fossil fuels. There is good diesel and bad diesel depending on the exact process of converting the crude to the diesel you get at the stations. Diesel is still cheaper than gasoline or petrol and it is still the go to fuel for commercial vehicles. With tightening environmental norms and emission regulations, diesel engines are facing a tough task. Add to that the reducing mileage because of focus on emissions or the clogged diesel particular filters and the owners of commercial vehicles, truckers and transport companies are having a tough time.

While diesel engines have been getting a bad name, there is the Caterpillar C15 diesel engine that is lean, mean and clean. The Caterpillar C15 is expected to clock 1,000,000 miles. The engine can power semis where the total gross weight of the vehicle will be up to 80,000 pounds. The engine is clearly robust and omnipotent. It can run rigs that require steady power and an excessive torque. The C15 diesel engine is powered by ACERT or Advanced Combustion Emissions Reduction Technology to adhere to the stringent emission regulations.

Designed to be sturdy

The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine is designed to be sturdy, to offer enough boost to endure compression and facilitate precise injection events so fuel is used as efficiently as realistically possible. The engine is more efficient than its counterparts and that again helps in fuel economy, especially during regeneration.  

The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine has a compression ratio of 18.1, it has mechanically actuated electronically controlled unit injection system or MEUI, there are two turbo charges and the engine is controlled by Caterpillar’s ADEM A4 ECM. The sturdy street pistons, four-bolt connecting rods, 300,000 mile particulate filter, 20,000 miles of oil change interval and expected engine life of at least 1,000,000 miles ensure you have a durable engine. The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine has displacement of 15.2L, the available power levels are 435-625 hp at 2,100 rmp, the engine weighs 2,890 pounds and has an oil capacity of 41 quarts.


Ricardo to collaborate with GTI to developed Natural Gas Engines
May 2016 11

Ricardo to collaborate with GTI to developed Natural Gas EnginesComments Off on Ricardo to collaborate with GTI to developed Natural Gas Engines

Posted In News

One of the premier consultants in the field of engineering and environment, Ricardo, will be collaborating with Gas Technology Institute (GTI) in two different projects to develop natural gas engines. This collaboration is in a bid to develop engines that are low on emission levels and can be used as alternatives for diesel engines used in the case of medium and heavy duty commercial vehicles that frequently ply on the highways of California.

Generally, engines that run on diesel emit high levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), greenhouse gases and particulate matter of diesel. As per reports from the California Air Resources Board, the mandatory air quality standards will be exceeded within 2031 in South Coast Basin if the emissions of NOx do not drop by 90% when compared to the present day standards.

As a part of the first project, Ricardo is planning to test two different ignition systems: one which is a high frequency discharge and the other is a pulsed nano plasma engine, with the intent to assess the effect it has on the performance of engines. They will also provide the support required for GTI to develop ultra-low emission natural gas engines for medium sized to heavy duty trucks. Presently, these types of vehicles are among the top 10 contributors for NOx emissions in the South Coast Air Basin.

They will continue to remain one of the largest emitters of NOx until the entire fleet is replaced by vehicles that adhere to the 2010 emission norms. Both the projects will also be sponsored by the Southern California Gas Co.

As per the President of Ricardo, Clive Wotton, the medium and heavy duty trucks cannot be electrified or hybridized like how SUVs and other passengers have been done. Thus, by using natural gas as an alternative for these transport trucks, it would at least be a step closer towards reducing the NOx emissions.

By developing an ultra low emission natural has engine that emits 90% lower NOx than the current trends, the emission levels will be equivalent to that of an electric heavy duty vehicle including the emission involved in generating the electricity required to power the vehicle.

Durability of Pistons set to increase with  the launch of new Power-train Piston Skirt Coatings from Federal-Mogul
May 2016 01

Durability of Pistons set to increase with the launch of new Power-train Piston Skirt Coatings from Federal-MogulComments Off on Durability of Pistons set to increase with the launch of new Power-train Piston Skirt Coatings from Federal-Mogul

Posted In Blog,Diesel Engine

Federal Mogul Holdings Corporation, better known as FDML, has come up with two piston skirt coatings: EcoTough –New Generation meant for gasoline run engines and EcoTough-D meant for diesel run engines. With the company innovating constantly, these new offerings come with improved formulation to reduce the friction and wear and tear in engines, helping it to tackle the varying temperatures and extreme conditions it has to operate in, especially for the downsized and turbo-charged engines.

Gian Maria Olivetti, the Chief Technology Officer of Federal Mogul Powertrain said that their main motive is to reduce the frictional losses by leveraging on their expertise on material. With their new range of EcoTough coatings, the durability of pistons are set to improve, thereby increasing the life of piston even in conditions where there is a high thermal and mechanical load in the present day engines that are efficient.

The solutions for gasoline and diesel engines differ greatly, mainly due to the relative difference in their combustion loads, geometry of piston and the lubricity of the fuels. They have worked on these differences and come up with specific coatings for each type of engine. The new generation of EcoTough coatings comprise of metal oxide-reinforced resin along with solid lubricant particles that are embedded. This coating is applied for a thickness of 15 microns and the wear and tear comes down by a whopping 40% over other coatings, improving the reliability of the piston even in extreme conditions. It also reduces the friction in piston by over 15% when compared to the standard coatings available in the market, which results in an improved efficiency of the engine.

The EcoTough range of coatings, which were developed after extensive rig testing, are now undergoing validation checks by automobile manufacturers before they will be used commercially.  EcoTough coatings are compatible both with aluminum and steel diesel pistons for commercial and passenger vehicles. Federal Mogul leveraged on the fact that diesel has better lubricity and the structural stiffness of diesel pistons are more, which enabled them to formulate the coatings accordingly. They also reinforced a polymer based coating with short length carbon fibers which comprised of embedded graphite that constituted to be a solid lubricant in EcoTough-D. This brought the friction in piston down by 35% when compared to conventional coatings. The water resistance of the coating saw a 30% improvement.

Almost 17% of the frictional losses in the engine arise only due to the piston skirt and piston pin, as per Dr. Frank T.H. Dornenburg, who leads the Technology department for Pistons at FDML. In a bid to reduce the friction and wear of piston skirt and cylinder surfaces, skirt coatings have proved to be effective and have also helped in achieving the interrelated targets. The application of coatings can be done using an automated and large scale production process, which will result in lower costs.

An Overview of Federal Mogul

Federal Mogul is an established company worldwide and supplies products and services to different automobile manufacturers and servicers from all over the world of all light, medium, heavy-duty and commercial, marine, rails, aerospace, power generation and industrial sector of markets. With the constant innovation at Federal Mogul, automobiles have been able to achieve better fuel economy, lower emission levels and better safety levels.

There are two independent lines of businesses at FDML run by two different CEOs, who directly report to the Board of Directors.

FDML manufactures components suited for automotive, heavy-duty, and industrial and transport applications. There are over 20 recognized brands in the global automobile aftermarket that are sold by Federal Mogul which include braking, wipers and different chassis components.

It was started in 1899 in Detroit and is headquartered in Southfield, Michigan. There are over 53,000 employees worldwide on its payroll.

Apr 2016 30

Elastisol A 2000- Silicone Rubbers that are RTV-1 readyComments Off on Elastisol A 2000- Silicone Rubbers that are RTV-1 ready

Posted In News

Description about the product

Elastisol is a product designed for gasketing and sealing applications where there is a necessity for resistance to long-life lubricants to be used under extreme conditions. It is a single piece component, thixotropic in nature and is a sealant.

Some of the special features of Elastisol A 2000 are listed below:

  1. Single component
  2. Cured at room temperature.
  3. Does not get affected by shear.
  4. Non-slump.
  5. No need of priming for adherence to majority of the substrates.
  6. It resists hot lubricating oils.

Steps for Application of Elastosil

The surface to which Elastosil has to be bonded should be dry, clean and must not have any oil and grease particles.

Elastisol A 2000 can also be dispensed in bulk by using conventional drum and pail extruder pumps for feeding gasket tracing machines and placing the beads precisely and also for achieving material efficiency. In the case of manual applications such as repair, it can be accomplished by using a high pressure flexible fluid hose and an extrusion gun.

The equipment required for transfer systems and dispensing machines will be provided to supplier on request. In most of the applications consisting of gaskets, a sealant bead of 3-4 mm would suffice. The parts should be assembled as soon as possible so that the sealant spreads evenly.

What is the difference between an in-frame kit and overhaul kit?
Mar 2016 22

Engines are the lifeblood of every imaginable high- pressure mechanical activity known to man, subjected to extreme pressures as the result of external and internal combustion processes that generate mechanical energy. They are responsible for making our cars run, generating power for electricity, hauling heavy stuff – they benefit us humans by taking over the work that our limited strength and power could not muster.
For the automobile industry, there are generally two types of major remedial measures used for engines – in-frame and overhaul (Out-of-frame) jobs and both require rebuild kits to replace damaged or worn-out parts.
What is the difference between an in-frame kit and an out-of-frame overhaul kit? The contents of the kits – an in-frame kit has less components compared to an overhaul kit.
Although both in-frame and overhaul jobs are focused on fixing engine performance issues, the in-frame repair process deals with rebuilding an engine without the need to remove the front cover or crankshaft of the engine.
Because of this, the in-frame kit does not contain gaskets for the front and rear body of the engine, only the main bearing, rod bearings, cylinder kits, upper gasket kit and oil pan gasket. The engine stays inside the vehicle frame without the need to be taken out of the vehicle body. In general, the in-frame process is intended mostly for regular preventive maintenance.

Out-of-Frame Overhaul Kit

An out-of-frame overhaul kit contains much more, as the overhaul process requires the engine to be removed from the frame of the vehicle. The rebuild process often requires engine block re-facing to smooth-en out the surface and cylinder re-boring to adjust clearances within the cylinder holes. During this process, then entire engine is disassembled.
An overhaul kit comes complete with cylinder kits, main bearings, rod bearings, front and rear crankshaft seals and complete overhaul gasket kit.
Costs vary between the two rebuild types. The overhaul repair process would cost much more, depending on the size of the engine, the amount of work and the parts needed for replacement or repair. Labor costs are often exclusive of the cost for overhaul kits.
When in doubt, always make sure to consult a specialist for the best and cost-effective advice for your engine repair and maintenance needs.

Types of Engine Rebuild Kits

Re-Ring Engine Rebuild Kit Includes piston rings, main bearings, rod bearings, thrust washers, upper gasket kit, oil pan gasket
In-frame Engine Rebuild Kit Includes piston & liner kits (or re-bore kits), main bearings, rod bearings, thrust washers, upper gasket kit and oil pan gasket
Out-of-frame Engine Rebuild Kit Includes piston & liner kits (or re-bore kits), main bearings, rod bearings, thrust washers, overhaul gasket kit and front & rear crankshaft seals
Piston-less In-frame Engine Rebuild Kit Includes liner kits, main bearings, rod bearings, thrust washers, upper gasket kit and oil pan gasket
Piston-less Out-of-frame Engine Rebuild Kit Includes liner kits, main bearings, rod bearings, thrust washers, overhaul gasket kit and front & rear crankshaft seals