Piston skirts is an important part of piston which covers the lowest. Piston skirt is responsible to keep piston from shaking unreasonably within the cylinder during working. Providing proper lubrication is the main task of Piston Skirts by holding and transporting oil to wall of the cylinder. To prevent scuffs on cylinder wall chemical layer coating is made on Piston Skirts which helps in proper lubrication.
Especially Heavy Diesel Engines requires proper lubrication in the cylinder walls and it requires special Piston Skirts which can perform lubrication process in heavy diesel engine.
Therefore, PIA has introduced High Performance diesel engine overhaul Piston Skits.
PAI’s Piston Skirts are treated with a new and highly developed anti-friction coating process. The coating is designed to lower scuffing and wear while providing a dry lubrication that is highly resistant to contamination, and reduces parasitic drag. HP-3 is a proprietary formulation of anti- friction coating applied to the piston skirt, to decrease friction on the cylinder walls.
As the largest friction area, the Cylinder Wall represents the largest loss of power and efficiency anywhere in the engine. HP-3 coating drastically reduces friction and allow for tighter clearances between the piston and the Cylinder Wall. This reduction in friction and clearance improves overall performance, lowers oil usage and oil temperature; ultimately increasing the life of the Skirt.
“HP-3 Coating drastically reduces friction and allow for tighter clearances between the piston and the Cylinder Wall.”
HP-3 Dry Film Lubricant coating is applied as a spray process. Different surface preparatory methods appropriate for the substrates are used prior to the coating process. Coating thickness is varied to suit the application. Typical coating thickness for piston skirts is 1 to 1.5 mil (12 to 37 microns).
Low coefﬁcient of friction, provides intermittent dry lubrication, Increased load carrying capacity, wear resistance, corrosion protection.
Diesel has always been the bad boy among all fossil fuels. There is good diesel and bad diesel depending on the exact process of converting the crude to the diesel you get at the stations. Diesel is still cheaper than gasoline or petrol and it is still the go to fuel for commercial vehicles. With tightening environmental norms and emission regulations, diesel engines are facing a tough task. Add to that the reducing mileage because of focus on emissions or the clogged diesel particular filters and the owners of commercial vehicles, truckers and transport companies are having a tough time.
While diesel engines have been getting a bad name, there is the Caterpillar C15 diesel engine that is lean, mean and clean. The Caterpillar C15 is expected to clock 1,000,000 miles. The engine can power semis where the total gross weight of the vehicle will be up to 80,000 pounds. The engine is clearly robust and omnipotent. It can run rigs that require steady power and an excessive torque. The C15 diesel engine is powered by ACERT or Advanced Combustion Emissions Reduction Technology to adhere to the stringent emission regulations.
The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine is designed to be sturdy, to offer enough boost to endure compression and facilitate precise injection events so fuel is used as efficiently as realistically possible. The engine is more efficient than its counterparts and that again helps in fuel economy, especially during regeneration.
The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine has a compression ratio of 18.1, it has mechanically actuated electronically controlled unit injection system or MEUI, there are two turbo charges and the engine is controlled by Caterpillar’s ADEM A4 ECM. The sturdy street pistons, four-bolt connecting rods, 300,000 mile particulate filter, 20,000 miles of oil change interval and expected engine life of at least 1,000,000 miles ensure you have a durable engine. The Caterpillar C15 diesel engine has displacement of 15.2L, the available power levels are 435-625 hp at 2,100 rmp, the engine weighs 2,890 pounds and has an oil capacity of 41 quarts.
Federal Mogul Holdings Corporation, better known as FDML, has come up with two piston skirt coatings: EcoTough –New Generation meant for gasoline run engines and EcoTough-D meant for diesel run engines. With the company innovating constantly, these new offerings come with improved formulation to reduce the friction and wear and tear in engines, helping it to tackle the varying temperatures and extreme conditions it has to operate in, especially for the downsized and turbo-charged engines.
Gian Maria Olivetti, the Chief Technology Officer of Federal Mogul Powertrain said that their main motive is to reduce the frictional losses by leveraging on their expertise on material. With their new range of EcoTough coatings, the durability of pistons are set to improve, thereby increasing the life of piston even in conditions where there is a high thermal and mechanical load in the present day engines that are efficient.
The solutions for gasoline and diesel engines differ greatly, mainly due to the relative difference in their combustion loads, geometry of piston and the lubricity of the fuels. They have worked on these differences and come up with specific coatings for each type of engine. The new generation of EcoTough coatings comprise of metal oxide-reinforced resin along with solid lubricant particles that are embedded. This coating is applied for a thickness of 15 microns and the wear and tear comes down by a whopping 40% over other coatings, improving the reliability of the piston even in extreme conditions. It also reduces the friction in piston by over 15% when compared to the standard coatings available in the market, which results in an improved efficiency of the engine.
The EcoTough range of coatings, which were developed after extensive rig testing, are now undergoing validation checks by automobile manufacturers before they will be used commercially. EcoTough coatings are compatible both with aluminum and steel diesel pistons for commercial and passenger vehicles. Federal Mogul leveraged on the fact that diesel has better lubricity and the structural stiffness of diesel pistons are more, which enabled them to formulate the coatings accordingly. They also reinforced a polymer based coating with short length carbon fibers which comprised of embedded graphite that constituted to be a solid lubricant in EcoTough-D. This brought the friction in piston down by 35% when compared to conventional coatings. The water resistance of the coating saw a 30% improvement.
Almost 17% of the frictional losses in the engine arise only due to the piston skirt and piston pin, as per Dr. Frank T.H. Dornenburg, who leads the Technology department for Pistons at FDML. In a bid to reduce the friction and wear of piston skirt and cylinder surfaces, skirt coatings have proved to be effective and have also helped in achieving the interrelated targets. The application of coatings can be done using an automated and large scale production process, which will result in lower costs.
An Overview of Federal Mogul
Federal Mogul is an established company worldwide and supplies products and services to different automobile manufacturers and servicers from all over the world of all light, medium, heavy-duty and commercial, marine, rails, aerospace, power generation and industrial sector of markets. With the constant innovation at Federal Mogul, automobiles have been able to achieve better fuel economy, lower emission levels and better safety levels.
There are two independent lines of businesses at FDML run by two different CEOs, who directly report to the Board of Directors.
FDML manufactures components suited for automotive, heavy-duty, and industrial and transport applications. There are over 20 recognized brands in the global automobile aftermarket that are sold by Federal Mogul which include braking, wipers and different chassis components.
It was started in 1899 in Detroit and is headquartered in Southfield, Michigan. There are over 53,000 employees worldwide on its payroll.
Much before refined diesel was stringently controlled by EPA norms and international agencies, there was raw or crude diesel. Much before sleek diesel engines, there were large, rather odd looking engines that were primarily tasked for function and not for comforting or fluidic designs of the vessels. One of the finest masterpieces of such diesel engines can be explored in the WWII Balao Class Submarine.
When the Second World War was inching towards an end, the navies of the Allied Forces needed more dominating and powerful presence in the waters and under. Thus, one needed submarines that could be in the waters for a long time and often in troubled enemy waters. For such operations, one needs an engine, rather a power plant that is reliable and has enough jus to last the mission.
The USS Pampanito (SS-383) was the first of its kind boat built which could store 110,000 gallons of diesel. There were several such submarines built from 1942 through 1944 which formed the Word War II Balao Class Fleet.
The USS Pampanito had 4 Fairbanks Morse 38D 8 1/8 model motors, which used opposed piston, in-line 10-cylinder engine with a bore of 8 1/8 inches and a stroke of 10 inches. Each ship had an auxiliary engine, the Fairbanks Morse Model 38E 5¼, which was a 7-cylinder, opposed piston, air-starting engine rated at 440HP with a bore of 5 1/4 inches and a stroke of 7 1/4 inches.
While operating at the surface, the submarine had two diesel engines driving the motor generators and two more powering the batteries. There was a fifth engine to provide electrical power for the auxiliary equipment onboard and the lights. The engines could operate at 300 rpm with peak performance clocking at 400 rpm.
The most stunning feature of the USS Pampanito was the ability to store 110,000 gallons of diesel for the five engines. To make this possible and to make the technology work, the ship had a bunker with a centrifugal purifying system. The Fairbanks Morse 38D 8 1/8 engines could generate 1600 horsepower.
Fascinatingly, despite the technology being almost seventy years old, Fairbanks Morse still manufactures spare parts for the engine as the engine had been in widespread use for many years after the war, well into the eighties.
Presently, the USS Pampanito is at pier 41 at the San Francisco Maritime Museum.
In some countries, there are more cars running on gasoline or gas instead of diesel. A typical example is the United States. In some regions of the world, there are more diesel cars than gasoline models. In some countries, like the United Kingdom, there is a fine balance between the two. So if you own a diesel car and fill it up with gasoline or if you own a gasser and fill it up with diesel, what kind of consequences would you be staring at?
Jon Bentley, the presenter of Fifth Gear, a television show in the UK, tried to experiment with both and had some stunning results to share. While most car owners or motorists would do this mistakenly or rather callously, Jon was well aware of what he was up to. Don’t go around experimenting but the findings are worth knowing.
Jon Bentley used Ford Escort, a sixth generation gasoline powered model, and Vauxhall Astra diesel. The Escort debuted in 1995 and the Astra debuted in 1991. Both vehicles are old and are thus ideal for the experiment. Newer or more advanced cars have better engines and the fuel systems are more robust. The case of wrong fuel can be of much greater jeopardy for older cars.
As the Escort got filled with diesel and the Astra got filled with gasoline, both cars seemed to run fine for a while. Despite the wrong fuel being loaded in the tanks, the cars used up the right fuel for some time till it was consumed entirely or got blended with the wrong fuel, to an extent to lose its presence and thus significance.
The Escort running on diesel instead of gasoline started to cut out sporadically. There were hiccups and then shudders. The Astra ran longer but when it did start to have problems, it just stopped and did not run an inch more. At this stage, you may wonder that your Escort would need some help and the Astra would have gone kaput. But neither of the two is true.
Jon just refilled the tanks with the right fuels and after some hiccups, which were insignificant, the two cars ran just as they were supposed to.
To sum it up, older vehicles will have problems with the wrong fuel. New cars will have fewer problems and may not come to a grinding halt but repeating the mistake time and again will damage the engines and transmission.
The Cummins ISX engine is specifically designed to be one of the strongest and most powerful engines. It can be used in a number of different settings and industries including mining. It is also designed for use in many heavy-duty trucks. In short, if you are looking for a powerful and robust engine that is designed for a variety of uses, the Cummins ISX engine is at the head of the class.
Changes to the Cummins ISX Engine Over the Years
The Cummins ISX engine has a long history. It was first manufactured back in 1998, but has been redesigned over the years. It was in 2010 that the Cummins ISX was built with a dual overhead cam design. The dual cams had different uses with one linked to the injector and the other the valve train. In 2013, even more changes were made as it was fitted with a diagnostics monitor. This monitor was designed to make the engine more fuel efficient. The efficiency of the engine was improved with this monitor and the amount of emissions could be tracked. Innovation has always been a part of the overall design of the Cummins ISX engine over the years and this has not changed as technology has continued to improve.
One of the most noticeable changes to the 2013 version of this engine was the cooling system. Efficiency of the engine has increased tremendously, but the size of the cooling system has been reduced dramatically. Even though the cooling system within the engine has reduced in size, the engine is still able to cool at optimal levels. There is now more open room within the engine that allows for the air to be cooled more efficiently and a large cooling system is no longer required. This change uses advanced technology and is one of the biggest differences on the newer models of the Cummins ISX engine.
With this new cooling system technology in place, it is possible for high amounts of fuel to be saved. This means that heavy duty trucks will have the ability to save over 2,000 gallons in fuel annually simply due to this minor change in the size of the cooling system within the Cummins ISX engine.
At a time when we have failed to control the rise of temperature within the desired two degrees Celsius and the leaders of the world are congregating in Paris to chalk out the roadmap to tackle climate change, there comes a pleasant development from the stable of Federal-Mogul. The company has developed a piston ring technology called eWAVE that can reduce carbon emissions in marine operations and can also reduce operating costs.
Federal-Mogul Holdings Corporation’s power train division in Germany has been conducting sea trials testing its new eWAVE rings that can reduce the amount of oil and lubricants needed in two stroke diesel engines. The rings will also reduce the loss of unused and used fuel, thus reducing the operating costs and cutting down on carbon emissions.
This is the first ring of its kind that allows the oil to be evenly distributed at its bore. In effect, the piston is more efficient. Conventional designs of rings don’t allow for even distribution of oil at the bore, which compels operators to pump in more lubricants and oil to ensure that the bores get enough to overcome the friction and can facilitate the smooth functioning of the piston. This excess oil that is pumped into the pistons is a massive waste. Up to 40% of the total oil pumped into the pistons is actually lost. The oil just seeps through and this leads to marine pollution, excessive loss of oil and adds to the carbon footprint of marine operations.
The patented surface topography that the new eWAVE® rings feature can disperse oil around the bore in a homogeneous layer. Thus, it can protect against local oil film breakdown, it would improve the sealing of combustion gases, the regular wearing out will be greatly reduced and there would be temperature uniformity inside the liners.
The technology solves the longstanding problem in two stroke diesel engines of the pistons being unable to have oil distributed circumferentially at the bores. According to an official press release, the new rings can save 30% of the total oil being used today that is completely wasted. The rings have been tested for over eight thousand hours and they have reduced wear resistance by 20%, which is again a saving in operating costs. The technology is compatible with various kinds of engine strokes and can function at different operating speeds.
Diesel is more affordable than gasoline or petrol. It is thus obvious why large scale commercial operations rely on diesel engines. Whether it is the commercial vehicles plying on the streets catering to citywide commutes or long distance trucks catering to moving goods, diesel powered vehicles are on the rise and the growth would continue.
The Diesel fuel injector is an integral part of any diesel engine and it is a tad more complicated than petrol or gasoline powered engines. There are two types of diesel fuel injectors: throttle body injection and individual port type fuel injector. A typical diesel fuel injector has a filter, core spring, guide ring, seat spring, pole piece, seat, solenoid coil and solenoid body, stop, core and a core ring, spray tip housing, spray tip and director. Diesel fuel injectors can come in myriad shapes or forms but they would invariably contain these parts. The fuel flow in a diesel fuel injector is controlled by ECM which functions by raising a ball off the seat. The fuel then flows through the seat and onto the fixed director plate. This plate has several holes through which the fuel flows and gets sprayed at around ten to fifteen degree angles.
Diesel fuel injectors spray fuel directly into the intake manifold of a diesel engine, which is right in front of the intake valve. Every diesel fuel injector has a high micron filter, hypodermic holes and the fuel sprayed through the top inlet and the filter leads to the atomizing of the fuel at the bottom. Other than catering to the primary function, diesel also ensures that the fuel injector remains well lubricated so all its parts can work optimally. The fuel injector valve operates at an rpm of around 1800, thus controlling the fuel intake. An rpm of 1800 typically means that the valve would open and close about 140,000 times in an hour. The diesel fuel injector is crucial to the functioning of the engine. A malfunctioning fuel injector would render the engine un-operational and one would have to replace the injector or have it cleansed and repaired.
A diesel fuel injector works frantically as long as the engine is running. The valve opening and closing to dispense the right amount of fuel happens so fast that it cannot be measured in seconds. Usually, a valve opens and closes and the injector facilitates the fuel dispensing in less than 5 milliseconds.
You may be waiting at a red light or you may have just started the engine and white smoke coming out of your tailpipe. Should you be alarmed? What should you do? You may want to ditch your truck for the day or you may want to ignore it. Neither is a wise approach. Get accustomed with the white smoke problem which is not normal but quite common with diesel engines.
Why the White Smoke?
There could be one or more reasons for your car exuding white smoke. The volume of white smoke will also vary. It could be insignificant or it could be voluminous. Let us get to the basics that can help you to understand the cause.
If coolant has entered the combustion chamber, then you will have white smoke emitting from the tailpipe. This could also happen if the engine has low compression. You can easily run a test to know for certain what the exact reason is. Pull the breather cap and look for smoke. If the engine is enduring excess blow-by then you would see white smoke emitting from the valve cover. You may need a technician to sort this out.
Worn out injectors can also cause white smoke. The injector may have a cracked tip, bad solenoid or harness. If the injector is damaged or worn out, then it may allow too much fuel in and that will affect the cylinder. If a cylinder goes down, then your diesel car or truck will emit white smoke.
Another common reason for white smoke is dropping coolant level. Some trucks have a perennial issue of dropping coolants. When coolants get into the engine, it can cause some severe damage over time. Don’t try to replenish the coolant and keep driving. Get your engine checked and fix the problem.
There are a few other causes of white smoke. The exact problem will depend on the vehicle and its specifications. In some models, the water and oil gets contaminated. Crankcases often get overwhelmed with water and radiators often have to endure excessive oil. You must try to steer clear from these issues. While these conditions are not entirely avertable, you must be quick to get them remedied. White smoke is just the symptom. You have to get to the root of the problem and fix it.
Diesel engines have been very popular in commercial vehicle but when people consider buying a personal car, the preference is inevitably the alternative. Diesel engines have become infamous over time but mostly because of certain myths that have remained firmly etched in our minds. It is necessary to debunk these myths. The focus on fuel economy and cost of running a car has ensured that people are getting interested in diesel engines. Time to shed light on a few facts and misconceptions.